foods, drinks, snacks, nutrients, supplements, and anything
else orally consumed by humans elicits a metabolic response.
As food goes into the mouth and gets processed, the body
has to decide what to do with the ingested item. There are
two main pathways taken:
the item in adipose tissue fat cells
(burn) the item as energy
Humans are genetically hard wired to shunt foods
into fat cells whenever possible, as that ensures survival.
The mechanism by which the two main pathways are accessed
depends on the Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic
Load (GL) of the edible item.
the consumed item has a High GI and GL, it will
primarily take Pathway number one (1). If the food has a
Low GI and GL, it will primarily take Pathway number
digested and metabolized foods possess the highest glycemic
indices. Slowly digested foods release glucose gradually
into the bloodstream, and are therefore, typically low glycemic.
All foods, drinks, and Nutraceuticals can be categorized
as either high or low glycemic:
High glycemic foods elevate blood glucose and insulin
levels, and stimulate fat-storage.
Low glycemic foods do not overly elevate blood glucose
and insulin, and do not stimulate Lipoprotein Lipase
(LPL) fat-storing mechanisms.
GLYCEMIC INDEX DEFINED
Index (GI) reflects the type and/or quality of carbohydrates
in a particular food or edible agent, and how a specific
portion of this food reacts metabolically as it is digested
in the human digestive tract.
four major areas that are tracked during glycemic clinical
studies include how the ingested food:
|| Raises blood
Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) and Fat-Storage Mechanisms
|| Affects the
glycemic index is technically defined as the “Incremental
area under the blood glucose response curve of a specific
portion of a test food expressed as a percent of the response
to the same amount of carbohydrate from a standard food
taken by the same subject.”
simple terms, foods can be assigned a glycemic index number
based on the comparative increases in blood glucose (sugar)
levels they produce when that food is consumed. A low glycemic
food causes a slower and more gradual rise in blood sugar
than a high glycemic food, and maintains increased energy
levels for a longer duration.
A high glycemic food increases blood sugar concentrations
quickly, thus providing energy to the body in a short period
of time. However, insulin is released in response to this
rise in blood sugar, which, in turn,
blood sugar down rapidly. This rapid decrease reduces the
energy supply and triggers mild-to-intense hunger.
response of a food also reflects the metabolic response
to various percentages of protein, fat, and carbohydrates
present in the food, which alter its glycemic response.
Contrary to popular opinion, pure protein, eaten without
carbohydrates, does elicit an insulin response, particularly
milk (and protein drinks containing milk or protein without
any additional carbohydrates) is a particularly potent insulin
secretagogue, as the observed insulin response in clinical
studies is about 5-fold greater than would be anticipated
from the glucose response. This explains why excess milk
ingestion can cause rapid weight gain (as is the case with
excess milk or protein ingestion combined with lack of exercise,
and inadequate muscle mass, results in excess body fat.
Ingesting more than 30 grams of protein at one time results
in automatic shunting of calories into adipose tissue fat
cells, thus increasing abdominal girth. This is true in
normal sized persons or large sized persons, such as 250-pound
body builders, because excess protein will always stimulate
fat-storage, despite the size of the individual. Protein
powders that deliver more than 30 grams of protein cause
increases in fat cell size, even in elite athletes.
TISSUE FAT STORAGE
In humans, clinical measurements can be taken that identify
the fat-storing properties of a food, and its path of metabolism.
All foods, drinks, and Nutraceutical products (such as Meal
Replacement drinks) are either burned as energy in the body
or shunted into adipose tissue fat cells. Clinical studies
can track the metabolic pathway of the food ingested, to
discover if it is burned or stored.
Adipose Tissue Fat Studies focus on identification of the
proclivity and ability of a “Test Food” to stimulate
fat-storage in fat cells via stimulation of human fat-storing
enzymes and mechanisms. During glycemic clinical studies,
Test Foods can be clinically analyzed In Vivo to determine
their metabolic fat-storing properties with optional specific
focus on insulin-resistance disorders.
the fat-stimulating properties of foods allows for better
control over food-driven fat-storage, obesity, insulin stimulation,
reactive hypoglycemia, as well as exacerbation and development
of Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin-Resistance, and type 2 diabetes.